M1 (Primary Motor Cortex)

  • The hand area of motor cortex is found on an upside-down omega part (in axial view) of the central sulcus

(Yousry et al., 1997, Brain)

FEF (Frontal Eye Fields)


(upper blobs)
(Muri et al., 1996, J Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry)

Premotor Cortex

  • See Picard & Strick, 2001 for an excellent review - main points summarized below

(Picard & Strick, 2001, Curr Op Neurobiology)

Supplementary Motor Cortex

SMA or SMA-proper (Supplementary Motor Area)

  • Posterior to VCA (coronal slice at anterior commissure)
  • Likely homologue of monkey F3
  • Direction connections to M1 and spinal cord

Pre-SMA (Pre-Supplementary Motor Area)

  • Cognitive, sensory or motivation inputs for motor behavior
  • Connected with prefrontal cortex
  • Visuomotor associations (and auditory-motor too)
  • Poor somatotopic organization
  • Activation during working memory delays

Cingulate Motor Areas

Caudal Cingulate Zone (CCZ)

  • Primarily related to movement execution
  • Comparable to CMAd (caudal cingulate motor area, dorsal bank of cingulate sulcus)
  • Primarily related to movement execution
  • Area activated by pain is below CCZ

Rostral Cingulate Zone (RCZ)

  • Motor and cognitive
  • Attentional or arousal are more rostral and ventral
  • Suggested roles in 'conflict monitoring' (anterior, RCZa) and 'attention/selection for action' (posterior, RCZp)

Dorsal (Lateral) Premotor Cortex (PMd)

(Tomassini et al., 2007, J Neurosci)

(Chouinard & Paus, 2006, The Neuroscientist)

pre-PMd = rostral (PMdr)

  • Likely comparable to monkey F7
  • Eye movement signals
  • Activated by conditional motor tasks, visual cues, movement imagination

PMd proper = caudal (PMdc)

  • Likely comparable to monkey F2
  • Hand movement signals
  • Movement preparation or execution

Ventral (Lateral) Premotor Cortex (PMv)

  • In monkeys: densely interconnected with M1, contains F4 and F5 (F5 has canonical neurons that respond to visual objects and mirror neurons that respond to actions of another individual)
  • In humans: ventral to FEF, but poorly characterized
  • Some believe area 44 (Broca's area) in humans is comparable to F5 in monkeys but this is controversial